E-Safety

Introduction

ICT in the 21st Century is an essential resource to support learning and teaching, as well as playing an important role in the everyday lives of children, young people and adults.  Consequently, schools need to build in the use of these technologies in order to equip our young people with the skills to access life-long learning and employment.

Information and Communications Technology covers a wide range of resources including web-based and mobile learning.  It is also important to recognise the constant and fast paced evolution of ICT within our society as a whole.  Currently the internet technologies that children and young people could have access to either at school or home are:

  • Websites
  • Learning Platforms and Virtual Learning Environments
  • Email and Instant Messaging
  • Chat Rooms and Social Networking
  • Blogs and Wikis
  • Podcasting
  • Video Broadcasting
  • Music Downloading
  • Web based gaming
  • Smart phones with text, photo, video and/ or internet access
  • Other mobile devices such as tablets with internet access

 

St Clare’s students need to be aware of the risks associated with web based activities.

At St Clare’s School, we acknowledge the responsibility to educate our students on  e-safety issues, teaching them the appropriate behaviours and skills to enable them to remain both safe and legal when using the internet and related technologies, in and beyond the context of the classroom.

This policy and the Acceptable Use Agreement for all staff, governors, visitors and pupils, address the use of internet technologies provided by the school via PCs, laptops, tablets, webcams, whiteboards, voting systems, digital video equipment and technologies owned privately by pupils and staff but brought onto school premises.

Roles and Responsibilities

As e-safety is an important aspect of strategic leadership within the school, the Head and governors have ultimate responsibility to ensure that the policy and practices are embedded and monitored. The named e-Safety Head teacher in our school is Head teacher who has been designated this role as a member of the senior leadership team. All members of the school community have been made aware of who holds this post. It is the role of the e-Safety Head teacher to keep abreast of current issues and guidance through organisations such as Derby LA, Becta, CEOP (Child Exploitation and Online Protection) and Childnet.

This policy, supported by the school’s acceptable use agreements for staff, governors, visitors and pupils – see appendix, is to protect the interests and safety of the whole school community. It is linked to the following school policies: child protection, health and safety, home–school agreements, and behaviour/pupil discipline (including the anti-bullying) policy and PHSE.

Advice for parents on Cyber-bullying

Social Media Guidance

e-Safety skills development for staff

  • Our staff receive regular information and training on e-safety issues in the form of briefings and circulars.
  • Details of relevant staff training programmes can be found via Derby LA.
    • New staff receive information on the school’s acceptable use policy as part of their induction.
      • All staff have been made aware of individual responsibilities relating to the safeguarding of children within the context of e-safety and know what to do in the event of misuse of technology by any member of the school community (see attached flowchart.
      • All staff are encouraged to incorporate e-safety activities and awareness within their curriculum areas.

Managing the school e-Safety messages

  • We try to embed e-Safety messages across the curriculum whenever the internet and/or related technologies are used.
  • The e-safety policy will be introduced to the pupils at the start of each school year.
  • E-safety posters are displayed near to the computers in the ICT suite.
  • E-safety is addressed regularly within assemblies.

e-Safety in the Curriculum

ICT and online resources are increasingly used across the curriculum and beyond.  We believe it is essential for e-safety guidance to be given to the pupils on a regular and meaningful basis.

  • The school has a framework for teaching internet skills in ICT/ PHSE lessons.
  • The school provides opportunities within a range of curriculum areas to teach about e-safety.
  • Educating students on the dangers of technologies that may be encountered outside school is done informally when opportunities arise and as part of the e-safety curriculum.
  • Students are taught about copyright and respecting other people’s information, images, etc through discussion, modelling and activities.
  • If appropriate, students are aware of the impact of online bullying and know how to seek help if they are affected by these issues. Students are also aware of where to seek advice or help if they experience problems when using the internet and related technologies; i.e. parent/ carer, teacher/ trusted staff member, or an organisation such as Child Line/ CEOP’s “report abuse” button.
  • Pupils are taught to critically evaluate web-based materials and to learn good research skills.

 

Password Security

Password security is essential for staff, particularly as they are able to access and use pupil data.  Staff are expected to have secure passwords which are not shared with anyone.

  • All users read and sign an Acceptable Use Agreement to demonstrate that they have understood the school’s e-safety Policy.
  • Users are provided with an individual network log-in username. They are also expected to use a personal password and keep it private.
  • Students are not allowed to deliberately access on-line materials or files on the school network, of their peers, teachers or others.
  • If you think your password may have been compromised or someone else has become aware of your password report this to Head teacher.
  • Staff are aware of their individual responsibilities to protect the security and confidentiality of school networks, or MIS systems. Individual staff users must also make sure that workstations are not left unattended and are locked.

Data Security

The accessing and appropriate use of school data is something that the school takes very seriously.   The school follows Becta guidelines (published Autumn 2008)

  • Staff are aware of their responsibility when accessing school data. Level of access is determined by the Head teacher
  • Any data taken off the school premises must be encrypted. Data can only be accessed and used on school computers or laptops.  Staff are aware they must not use their personal devices for accessing any school/ children/ pupil

Managing the Internet

Globally, the internet is an open communication medium, available to all, at all times. Anyone can view information, send messages, discuss ideas and publish material which makes it both an invaluable resource for education, business and social interaction, as well as a potential risk to young and vulnerable people. All use of the internet provided by Derby LA is logged and the logs are randomly but regularly monitored. Whenever any inappropriate use is detected it will be followed up.

  • The school maintains students will have supervised access to Internet resources (where reasonable) through the school’s fixed and mobile internet technology.
  • Staff will preview any recommended sites before use.
  • Raw image searches are discouraged when working with pupils.
  • If Internet research is set for homework, specific sites will be suggested that have previously been checked by the teacher. It is advised that parents recheck these sites and supervise this work. Parents will be advised to supervise any further research.
  • All users must observe software copyright at all times. It is illegal to copy or distribute school software or illegal software from other sources.
  • All users must observe copyright of materials from electronic resources.

Infrastructure

    • Derby City Local Authority is able to monitor and record web-based activity.
  • School internet access is controlled through the LA’s web filtering service.
    • Our school also employs some additional web filtering which is the responsibility of Head teacher
    • St Clare’s is aware of its responsibility when monitoring staff communication under current legislation and takes into account freedom of infrastructure; Data Protection Act 1998, The Telecommunications (Lawful Business Practice) (Interception of Communications) Regulations 2000, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, Human Rights Act 1998.
    • Staff and students are aware that school based e-mail and internet activity can be monitored and explored further if required.
    • The school does not allow students access to internet logs.
    • The school uses management control tools for controlling and monitoring workstations.
    • If staff or pupils discover an unsuitable site, the screen must be switched off/ closed and the incident reported immediately to the Head teacher.
    • It is the responsibility of the school, by delegation to the network manager, to ensure that Anti-virus protection is installed and kept up-to-date on all school machines.
    • Pupils and Staff using personal removable media are responsible for measures to protect against viruses, for example making sure that additional systems used have up-to-date virus protection software. It is not the school’s responsibility nor the network manager’s to install or maintain virus protection on personal systems. If students wish to bring in work on removable media it must be scanned first.
    • Pupils and staff are not permitted to download programs or files for personal use on school based technologies without seeking prior permission from (Head teacher).
    • If there are any issues related to viruses or anti-virus software, the network manager should be informed.

Social Media and Networking

Social media can provide opportunities to share ideas and educational media if used responsibly.  However it is important to recognise that there are issues regarding the appropriateness of some content, contact, culture and commercialism. We encourage our staff to think carefully about the way that information can be added and removed by all users, including themselves, from these sites.

  • At present, the school endeavours to deny access to social networking sites to pupils within school.
  • All students are advised to be cautious at home about the information given by others on sites, for example users not being who they say they are.
  • Students are taught to avoid placing images of themselves (or details within images that could give background details) on such sites and to consider the appropriateness of any images they post due to the difficulty of removing an image once online.
  • Students are always reminded to avoid giving out personal details on such sites which may identify them or where they are (full name, address, mobile/ home phone numbers, school details, IM/ email address, specific hobbies/ interests).
  • Our students are advised to set and maintain profiles on such sites to maximum privacy and deny access to unknown individuals.
  • Students are encouraged to be wary about publishing specific and detailed private thoughts online.
  • Our students are asked to report any incidents of bullying to the school.
  • Staff may only create blogs, wikis or other social media sites in order to communicate with other approved schools using the systems approved by Head teacher.
  • Staff must not under any circumstances allow students, be they present or past, to become friends on their social networking sites. St Clare’s School strongly discourages any liaison with students’ parents or other associates via social networking sites.
  • St Clare’s SLT advises its staff to use social networking sites with extreme caution. Privacy settings must be at their highest.  Staff must not use these sites to exchange information which would damage or harm the school, its staff or students.
  • Both staff and students must be aware that their online action could constitute ‘cyberbullying’. Whilst cyberbullying is not a specific criminal offence there are laws that can apply in terms of harassment and threatening and menacing communications.
  • Public Order Act 1986
  • Malicious Communications 1988
  • Protection from Harassment Act 1997
  • Communications Act 2003

Mobile technologies

Mobile technologies offer opportunities for teaching and learning including a move towards personalised learning and 1:1 device ownership for children and young people. Many existing mobile technologies such as portable media players, gaming devices, tablets, i-pads, and mobile and Smart phones are familiar to children outside of school.  They often provide a collaborative, well-known device with possible internet access and thus open up risk and misuse associated with communication and internet use.  Mobile technologies will be examined for educational benefit and the risk assessed before use in school is allowed.  Our school chooses to manage the use of these devices in the following ways so that users exploit them appropriately.

Personal Mobile devices (including phones)

  • The school allows staff to bring in personal mobile phones and devices for their own use. Staff use of mobile devices must not hinder their working day and must not be used during lesson time.
  • Pupils can bring personal mobile devices/phones to school if they travel independently but must hand them into the office at the start of the day.
  • The school is not responsible for the loss, damage or theft of any personal mobile device.
  • The sending of inappropriate text messages between any member of the school community is not allowed.
  • Permission must be sought before any image or sound recordings are made on these devices of any member of the school community.
  • Users bringing personal devices into school must ensure there is no inappropriate or illegal content on the device.

School provided Mobile devices (including phones)

  • The sending of inappropriate text messages between any member of the school community is not allowed.
  • Permission must be sought before any image or sound recordings are made on the devices of any member of the school community.
  • Where the school provides a laptop for staff, only this device may be used to conduct school business outside of school.
  • Any mobile devices supplied by St Clare’s remain the property of St Clare’s and are to be returned upon request. Staff should return such equipment if they are terminating their employment at St Clare’s.

Managing e-mail

The use of e-mail within most schools is an essential means of communication for both staff and pupils.  In the context of school, e-mail should not be considered private.  Educationally, e-mail can offer significant benefits including; direct written contact between schools on different projects, be they staff based or pupil based, within school or international.  We recognise that pupils need to understand how to style an e-mail in relation to their age and good ‘netiquette’.  In order to achieve “Functional Skills” in ICT pupils must have experienced sending and receiving e-mails.

Staff at St Clare’s School have their own e-mail account to use for all school business. This is to minimise the risk of receiving unsolicited or malicious e-mails and avoids the risk of personal profile information being revealed.

  • It is the responsibility of each account holder to keep the password secure.       For the safety and security of users and recipients, all mail is filtered and logged; if necessary e-mail histories can be traced. This should be the account that is used for all school business.
  • Under no circumstances should staff contact pupils, parents or conduct any school business using personal e-mail addresses.
  • The school requires a standard disclaimer to be attached to all e-mail correspondence, stating that, ‘the views expressed are not necessarily those of the school or the LA’. The responsibility for adding this disclaimer lies with the account holder.
  • E-mail sent to an external organisation should be written carefully before sending, in the same way as a letter written on school headed paper.
  • Key Stage 4 pupils will have their own individual school issued accounts with restrictions to whom they can mail and KS3 students will use a group e-mail account with the password held by their tutor and ICT teacher
  • The forwarding of chain letters is not permitted in school.
  • All e-mail users are expected to adhere to the generally accepted rules of network etiquette (netiquette) particularly in relation to the use of appropriate language and not revealing any personal details about themselves or others in e-mail communication, or arrange to meet anyone without specific permission, virus checking attachments.
  • Students must immediately tell a teacher/ trusted adult if they receive an offensive e-mail.
  • Staff must inform (the eSafety Head teacher/ line manager) if they receive an offensive e-mail.
  • Pupils are introduced to email as part of the ICT Scheme of Work.

Safe Use of Images

Taking of Images and Film

Digital images are easy to capture, reproduce and publish and, therefore, misused.  We must remember that it is not always appropriate to take or store images of any member of the school community or public, without first seeking consent and considering the appropriateness.

  • With the written consent of parents (on behalf of pupils) and staff, the school permits the appropriate taking of images by staff and pupils with school equipment.
  • Staff are not permitted to use personal digital equipment, such as mobile phones and cameras, to record images of pupils, this includes when on field trips. However with the express permission of the Head teacher, images can be taken provided they are transferred immediately and solely to the school’s network and deleted from the staff device.
  • Pupils are not permitted to use personal digital equipment, including mobile phones and cameras, to record images of the others, this includes when on field trips. However with the express permission of the Head teacher, images can be taken provided they are transferred immediately and solely to the school’s network and deleted from the pupils device.
  • Images and video extracts of the school environment, staff or students must not be used in social networking sites under any circumstances.

Consent of adults who work at the school

  • Permission to use images of all school staff for school purpose is sought on induction and a copy is located in the personnel file

Publishing pupil’s images and work

On a child’s entry to the school, all parents/guardians will be asked to give permission to use their child’s work/photos in the following ways:

  • on the school web site
  • in the school prospectus and other printed publications that the school may produce for promotional purposes
  • recorded/ transmitted on a video or webcam
  • in display material that may be used in the school’s communal areas
  • in display material that may be used in external areas, ie exhibition promoting the school
  • general media appearances, eg local/ national media/ press releases sent to the press highlighting an activity (sent using traditional methods or electronically)

This consent form is considered valid for the entire period that the child attends this school unless there is a change in the child’s circumstances where consent could be an issue, eg divorce of parents, custody issues, etc.

Parents/ carers may withdraw permission, in writing, at any time. Consent has to be given by both parents in order for it to be deemed valid.

Pupils’ names will not be published alongside their image and vice versa. E-mail and postal addresses of pupils will not be published. Pupils’ full names will not be published.

Before posting student work on the internet, a check needs to be made to ensure that permission has been given for work to be displayed.

Only Head teacher and Jody Specht have authority to upload to the site or to instruct a named person to do so.

Storage of Images

  • Images/ films of children are stored on the school’s network and authorised memory storage devices. These should not be taken home.
  • Pupils and staff are not permitted to use personal portable media for storage of images (e.g., USB sticks) without the express permission of the Head teacher
  • Rights of access to this material are restricted to the teaching staff and pupils within the confines of the school network.
  • Staff have the responsibility for deleting the images when they are no longer required, or the pupil has left the school.

Webcams

  • Webcams in school will only ever be used for specific learning purposes and will only be used in a secure environment.

Video Conferencing

  • Permission is sought from parents and carers if their children are involved in video conferences
  • All pupils are supervised by a member of staff when video conferencing
  • The school keeps a record of video conferences, including date, time and participants.
  • Approval from the Head teacher is sought prior to all video conferences within school.
  • The school conferencing equipment is not set to auto-answer and is only switched on for scheduled and approved conferences.
  • No part of any video conference is recorded in any medium without the written consent of those taking part.

 

Additional points to consider:

  • Participants in conferences offered by 3rd party organisations may not be DBS checked. Only approved bodies may take part in video conferencing with St Clare’s School.
  • Conference supervisors need to be familiar with how to use the video conferencing equipment, particularly how to end a call if at any point any person taking part becomes unhappy with the content of the conference.

Misuse and Infringements

Complaints

Complaints relating to e-safety should be made to the e-safety officer/Head Teacher.

Inappropriate material

  • All users are aware of the procedures for reporting accidental access to inappropriate materials. The breach must be immediately reported to the       e-safety officer/Head teacher.
  • Deliberate access to inappropriate materials by any user will lead to the incident being logged by the e-safety officer/Head teacher, depending on the seriousness of the offence; investigation by the Head teacher/LA, immediate suspension, possibly leading to dismissal and involvement of police for very serious offences.

Parental Involvement

We believe that it is essential for parents/carers to be fully involved with promoting e-safety both in and outside of school.   We regularly consult and discuss e-safety with parents/carers and seek to promote a wide understanding of the benefits related to ICT and associated risks.

  • Parents/ carers are asked to read through and sign acceptable use agreements on behalf of their child on admission to school.
  • Parents/ carers are required to make a decision as to whether they consent to images of their child being taken/ used in the public domain (e.g., on school website)
  • The school disseminates information to parents relating to e-safety where appropriate in the form of;
    • Information and celebration evenings
    • Posters
    • Website/ Learning Platform postings
    • Newsletter items

Writing and Reviewing this Policy

Review Procedure

There will be an on-going opportunity for staff to discuss with the e-safety               head teacher any issue of e-safety that concerns them.

This policy will be reviewed every 12 months and consideration given to the implications for future whole school development planning.

The policy will be amended if new technologies are adopted or Central Government change the orders or guidance in any way.

 

 

 

 

Acceptable Use Agreement: Staff, Governors and Visitors

Staff, Governor and Visitor Acceptable Use Agreement / Code of Conduct

ICT and the related technologies such as e-mail, the internet are part of our daily working life in school.  This policy is designed to ensure that all staff are aware of their professional responsibilities when using any form of ICT.  All staff are expected to sign this policy and adhere at all times to its contents.  Any concerns or clarification should be discussed with Head teacher.

  • I will only use the school’s e-mail / Internet / Intranet and any related technologies for professional purposes or for uses deemed ‘reasonable’ by the Head or Governing Body.
  • I will comply with the ICT system security and not disclose any passwords provided to me by the school or other related authorities.
  • I will ensure that all electronic communications with pupils and staff are compatible with my professional role.
  • I will not give out my own personal details, such as mobile phone number and personal e-mail address, to pupils.
  • I will only use the approved, secure e-mail system(s) for any school business.
  • I will ensure that personal data is kept secure and is used appropriately, whether in school, taken off the school premises or accessed remotely. Personal data can only be taken out of school or accessed remotely when authorised by the Head or Governing Body.
  • I will not install any hardware of software without permission of Head teacher.
  • I will not browse, download, upload or distribute any material that could be considered offensive, illegal or discriminatory.
    • Images of pupils and/or staff will only be taken, stored and used for professional purposes inline with school policy and with written consent of the parent, carer or staff member. Images will not be distributed outside the school network without the permission of the parent/carer, member of staff or Head teacher.
    • I understand that all my use of the Internet and other related technologies can be monitored and logged and can be made available, on request, to my Line Manager or Head teacher.
    • I will respect copyright and intellectual property rights.
    • I will ensure that my online activity, both in school and outside school, will not bring my professional role into disrepute and that I accept the guidelines given regarding social networking sites.
  • I will support and promote the school’s e-Safety policy and help pupils to be safe and responsible in their use of ICT and related technologies.

 

User Signature

I agree to follow this code of conduct and to support the safe use of ICT throughout the school

Signature …….………………….………… Date ……………………

Full Name ……………………………………………………………………..(printed)

Job title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Acceptable Use of ICT by Students

 

Acceptable Use

Agreement / e-safety Rules

 

  • I will only use ICT in school for school purposes.
  • I will only use my class e-mail address or my own school-email address when e-mailing.
  • I will only open e-mail attachments from people I know, or who my teacher has approved.
  • If I have a password I will keep it secret.
  • I will only open/delete my own files.
  • I will make sure that all ICT contact with other children and adults is responsible, polite and sensible.
  • I will not deliberately look for, save or send anything that could be unpleasant or nasty. If I accidentally find anything like this I will tell my teacher immediately.
  • I will not give out my own details such as my name, phone number or home address. I will not arrange to meet someone unless this is part of a school project approved by my teacher and a responsible adult comes with me.
  • I will be responsible for my behaviour when using ICT because I know that these rules are to keep me safe.
  • I know that my use of ICT can be checked and that my parent/ carer contacted if a member of school staff is concerned about my e-safety.

 

Rough Heanor Road, Mickleover, Derby DE3 9AZ

Telephone: (01332) 511757 Fax: (01332) 519968

email: admin@stclares.derby.sch.uk

www.stclaresschool.co.uk

HEAD TEACHER: M STRATTON

Dear Parent/ Carer

ICT including the internet, e-mail are an important part of learning in our school.   We expect all children to be safe and responsible when using any ICT. Please read and discuss these e-safety rules with your child and return the slip at the bottom of this page.  If you have any concerns or would like some explanation please contact Head teacher.

 

 

 

 

Parent/ carer signature

We have discussed this and …………………………………………….(child name) agrees to follow the e-safety rules and to support the safe use of ICT at

St Clare’s School.

Parent/ Carer Signature …….………………….………………………….

Class ………………………………….  Date ………………………………

 

 

 

Smile and Stay Safe Poster

E-Safety Rules to be displayed next to all PCs in school and stay safe

Staying safe means keeping your personal details private, such as full name, phone number, home address, photos or school.

Meeting up with someone you have met online can be dangerous.

Information online can be untrue, biased or just inaccurate. Someone online may not be telling the truth about who they are – they may not be a ‘friend’

Let a parent, carer, teacher or trusted adult know if you ever feel worried, uncomfortable or frightened about something online or someone you have met or who has contacted you online.

Emails, downloads, IM messages, photos and anything from someone you do not know or trust may contain a virus or unpleasant message. So do not open or reply.

 

Current Legislation

 

Acts relating to monitoring of staff email

 

Data Protection Act 1998

The Act requires anyone who handles personal information to comply with important data protection principles when treating personal data relating to any living individual. The Act grants individuals rights of access to their personal data, compensation and prevention of processing.

http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980029.htm

 

The Telecommunications (Lawful Business Practice)

(Interception of Communications) Regulations 2000

http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2000/20002699.htm

 

Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000

Regulating the interception of communications and making it an offence to intercept or monitor communications without the consent of the parties involved in the communication. The RIP was enacted to comply with the Human Rights Act 1998. The Telecommunications (Lawful Business Practice) (Interception of Communications) Regulations 2000, however, permit a degree of monitoring and record keeping, for example, to ensure communications are relevant to school activity or to investigate or detect unauthorised use of the network. Nevertheless, any monitoring is subject to informed consent, which means steps must have been taken to ensure that everyone who may use the system is informed that communications may be monitored. Covert monitoring without informing users that surveillance is taking place risks breaching data protection and privacy legislation.

http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2000/20000023.htm

 

Human Rights Act 1998

http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980042.htm

Other Acts relating to eSafety

Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006

It a criminal offence to threaten people because of their faith, or to stir up religious hatred by displaying, publishing or distributing written material which is threatening. Other laws already protect people from threats based on their race, nationality or ethnic background.

Sexual Offences Act 2003

The new grooming offence is committed if you are over 18 and have communicated with a child under 16 at least twice (including by phone or using the Internet) it is an offence to meet them or travel to meet them anywhere in the world with the intention of committing a sexual offence. Causing a child under 16 to watch a sexual act is illegal, including looking at images such as videos, photos or webcams, for your own gratification. It is also an offence for a person in a position of trust to engage in sexual activity with any person under 18, with whom they are in a position of trust.  Schools should already have a copy of “Children & Families: Safer from Sexual Crime” document as part of their child protection packs.

For more information

www.teachernet.gov.uk

Communications Act 2003 (section 127)

Sending by means of the Internet a message or other matter that is grossly offensive or of an indecent, obscene or menacing character; or sending a false message by means of or persistently making use of the Internet for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience or needless anxiety is guilty of an offence liable, on conviction, to imprisonment. This wording is important because an offence is complete as soon as the message has been sent: there is no need to prove any intent or purpose.

 

The Computer Misuse Act 1990 (sections 1 – 3)

Regardless of an individual’s motivation, the Act makes it a criminal offence to gain:

  • access to computer files or software without permission (for example using another persons password to access files)
  • unauthorised access, as above, in order to commit a further criminal act (such as fraud)
  • impair the operation of a computer or program

 

UK citizens or residents may be extradited to another country if they are suspected of committing any of the above offences.

Malicious Communications Act 1988 (section 1)

This legislation makes it a criminal offence to send an electronic message (e-mail) that conveys indecent, grossly offensive, threatening material or information that is false; or is of an indecent or grossly offensive nature if the purpose was to cause a recipient to suffer distress or anxiety.

 

Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988

Copyright is the right to prevent others from copying or using work without permission. Works such as text, music, sound, film and programs all qualify for copyright protection. The author of the work is usually the copyright owner, but if it was created during the course of employment it belongs to the employer. Copyright infringement is to copy all or a substantial part of anyone’s work without obtaining them author’s permission. Usually a licence associated with the work will allow a user to copy or use it for limited purposes. It is advisable always to read the terms of a licence before you copy or use someone else’s material. It is also illegal to adapt or use software without a licence or in ways prohibited by the terms of the software licence.

 

Public Order Act 1986 (sections 17 – 29)

This Act makes it a criminal offence to stir up racial hatred by displaying, publishing or distributing written material which is threatening. Like the Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 it also makes the possession of inflammatory material with a view of releasing it a criminal offence.

 

Protection of Children Act 1978 (Section 1)

It is an offence to take, permit to be taken, make, possess, show, distribute or advertise indecent images of children in the United Kingdom. A child for these purposes is anyone under the age of 18. Viewing an indecent image of a child on your computer means that you have made a digital image. An image of a child also covers pseudo-photographs (digitally collated or otherwise). A person convicted of such an offence may face up to 10 years in prison.

 

Obscene Publications Act 1959 and 1964

Publishing an “obscene” article is a criminal offence. Publishing includes electronic transmission.

 

Protection from Harassment Act 1997

A person must not pursue a course of conduct, which amounts to harassment of another, and which he knows or ought to know amounts to harassment of the other.

A person whose course of conduct causes another to fear, on at least two occasions, that violence will be used against him is guilty of an offence if he knows or ought to know that his course of conduct will cause the other so to fear on each of those occasions.